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First daily weather forecast, The Times, 08.01.1861
Some websites about the first forecast:
The Met Office blog is a good place to start. Also look at the Met Office's history page as well.
The American Meteorological Society has a article by Randell S. Cerveny "Charles Darwin's Meteorological Observations aboard the HMS Beagle" (2005).
BBC - 23 Degrees: Helen Czerski's write up is nice and accessible. She notes that:
"In the end though, Fitzroy was given the most appropriate recognition possible. When the region that used to be known as Finisterre on the shipping forecast was renamed in 2002, they decided that it would be called Fitzroy. So now, four times a day on longwave radio, Fitzroy's name is broadcast to all shipping in the vicinity of the United Kingdom. Next time you hear "Trafalgar, Fitzroy, Sole, Lundy..." as you fall asleep, think of the man who started the journey towards the weather forecasts we all take for granted today."
BBC News: "Happy Birthday Weather Forecasts" a short report with some vintage images and recordings.
For Fitzroy's own writings, see John van Wyhe's The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online remains a premier resource where you will find:
FitzRoy, R. 1832. Extract of a Letter from Captain Fitz Roy, of H. M. Sloop Beagle, on the subject of the Abrolhos Bank. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 2: 315-316. Text A209
FitzRoy, R. 1836. Sketch of the Surveying Voyages of his Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle, 1825-1836. Commanded by Captains P. P. King, P. Stokes, and R. Fitz-Roy, Royal Navy. Journal of the Geological Society of London 6: 311-343. Text Image A73
FitzRoy, R. 1837. Extracts from the Diary of an Attempt to Ascend the River Santa Cruz, in Patagonia, with the boats of his Majesty's sloop Beagle. By Captain Robert Fitz Roy, R.N. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 7: 114-26. Text Image A74
FitzRoy, R. 1837. Notice of the Mountain Aconcagua in Chile. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 7: 143-144. Text A210
FitzRoy, R. 1839. Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle between the years 1826 and 1836, describing their examination of the southern shores of South America, and the Beagle's circumnavigation of the globe. Proceedings of the second expedition, 1831-36, under the command of Captain Robert Fitz-Roy, R.N. London: Henry Colburn. Text Image PDF F10.2
[FitzRoy, R.] 1839. Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle between the years 1826 and 1836, describing their examination of the southern shores of South America, and the Beagle's circumnavigation of the globe. Appendix to Volume II. London: Henry Colburn. Text Image PDF F10.2a
These last two sites are also invaluable for understanding Darwin's work, and his working and personal relationship with FitzRoy:
Darwin Correspondence Project
Voyage of the Beagle in Blog format